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WEAVING PREPARATION Winding Winding Process Quill Winding Quill Winding A quill or pirn is a filling bobbin that is placed inside a. 7ZHDBJPUAK ^ Pin or Pirn Winding Machine \\ site in an exceptionally easy way and is particularly merely right a er i finished reading this ebook where in. Please, help me to find this pirn winding pdf file. . I found one site (database) with millions of pdf ebooks, programs, music, films, etc, but I don't.
Winding: The process of transferring yarn from ring bobbins, hanks, cone, etc. Naturally, such defects are not produced by the winding machine.
Splicing is a technique of joining two yarn ends by intermingling the Carry out production calculation of all Spinning and Weaving Machines. To prepare spin plan for blend spinning unit. To prepare Dictionar Tehnic Englez - Roman - fr. Find something interesting to watch in seconds. Therefore, these yarns are subjected to texturing process.
Texturing makes the continuous filament yarns bulkier and stretchable. Different texturing methods are used such as false twist, crimping, knit-de-knit and air-jet. By the nature of the fiber spinning process, the fiber lengths are very long. Therefore, the man-made fibers are cut into short staples to make the staple yarn.
Of course, natural fibers already come in short staple form. Staple spun yarns are made of twisting and entangling short fibers together. Both natural and man-made fibers can be used to make staple yarns. The length of the staple typically varies between 2. There are several well-established spinning methods.
The major methods are ring spinning, open-end rotor spinning, air-jet spinning and friction spinning. Prior to the actual spinning process, spinning preparation takes place. This may include blending, opening, cleaning, carding, drawing, combing and roving, depending on the requirements on the yarn. Not every step is mandatory for every staple yarn. In ring spinning, fibers in the roving are twisted by a traveler rotating on a ring Figure 2.
In open-end spinning also called rotor spinning , fibers are twisted together inside a rotor that is rotating at high speeds Figure 2. In MJS, two air jet nozzles are used to twist and entangle the fibers in the sliver.
The air vortexes inside the nozzles are in opposite directions. Therefore, the first nozzle twists the fibers in one direction and the second nozzle twists the fibers in the other direction Figure 2. However, there is no positively controlled twist given to the yarn.
Yarn does have real twist in its structure, which is similar to twist in ring spun yarns. The rotation of the drums gives twist and entanglement to the fibers. The yarns that are produced with each spinning method have quite different structures and properties as far as sizing and weaving are concerned. The ring spun yarns are characterized by high level and relatively uniform twist. In open end spun yarns, there is a distinct core of fibers with relatively low twist; other fibers are wrapped around the core.
The structure of air-jet yarns is in between the open end and ring spun yarns. The strength of MVS yarns is closer to ring spun yarns than the other methods. Ring spun yarns also have the highest elongation followed by jet spun and open end yarns.
The evenness of jet spun yarns is more than open end yarns that are, in turn, more consistent than ring spun yarns. As a result, the jet and open end spun yarns have fewer slubs, thin and thick places which result in less warp stops at the loom.
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Ring spun yarn has the highest hairiness due to a high twist level that causes the fibers to protrude from the yarn structure. Open end and jet spun yarns are more susceptible to handling damage than ring spun yarns.
Ring spun yarns are costlier than open end yarns which in turn are costlier than Murata vortex spun yarns. Two or more single yarns can be twisted together to obtain ply yarns. In the direct yarn number system, weight per unit length is specified. Heavier yarn has greater weight per unit length. In the indirect yarn number system, length per unit weight is specified.
Less heavy yarn has greater length per unit weight.
Traditionally, the direct system is used in the metric system and indirect system is used in the English system. However, there are exceptions to this. Examples of direct yarn number system units are tex and denier.
The tex is the weight in grams of meters of yarn. For example, a tex yarn weighs grams per kilometer. In the indirect yarn number system, the number of hanks in one pound of yarn is indicated. If there is one hank in one pound of yarn, then that yarn is called 1s ones single count yarn; if there are 7 hanks, it is called 7s sevens single count, etc.
The length of a hank is different for different kinds of yarns. A cotton hank is yards. For worsted yarn, one hank is yards and for linen yarn one hank is yards. In the indirect system: 2. Due to this inverse relationship, this system is called the indirect system. The relation between metric count and cotton count is: 2. The letters S and Z are used to designate left and right twist, respectively Figure 2.
Twist Multiplier In practice, twist multiplier is used to calculate the turns per inch necessary for a given size spun yarn. Review Questions 17 2. Brandrup, J. Broughton, R. Find out what a generic name and a trade name for a fiber is. Twist multiplier is determined from the turns per inch and the cotton count: 2.
What is fiber spinning versus yarn spinning? How do the crystallinity and molecular orientation affect the fiber properties? If you were to design a battledress uniform fabric, how would you choose the fiber, yarn and fabric structures? The structure of the fabric and its appearance are affected by the pattern of interlacing to a large extent. As a result, fabrics made of the same yarns may differ greatly in appearance and properties if the interlacing pattern is different.
There is practically an unlimited number of weaves that can be developed. This gives the designer endless possibilities to develop a fabric for any purpose.
The possibilities are only limited by the imagination of the designer. This is an obvious advantage that textile technology offers. The warp yarns are parallel to each other and run lengthwise through the fabric or along the weaving machine direction.
In general, there are thousands of warp ends on a typical weaving machine making a fabric. Sometimes, a warp yarn is also called the machine direction yarn, especially in industrial fabric manufacturing. Filling yarns run perpendicular to the warp yarns. The name usually depends on the industry. Figure 3. Facing the machine from front, the right of the observer indicates the right side of the weaving machine.
This is the side where the pick is received receiving side. The left side, where the pick is inserted from, is called the picking side. Although most modern weaving machines use the left side as the picking side, in some machines the right side is the picking side.
The warp yarns are numbered starting from the left side of the weaving machine. The harness numbering starts from the front side of the loom.
These reference points are important to avoid confusion among the professionals. Order of interlacing is a result of order of entering the warp yarns through the heddles and order of lifting the harnesses. Order of interlacing of a fabric is called the weave. In the weave diagram, the columns represent the warp yarns ends and the rows represent the filling yarns picks. The ends are numbered from left to right, and the picks are numbered from bottom to top.
A square in the diagram represents the intersection of one end and one pick.
If the warp yarn is over the filling yarn in that intersection, then the square is filled or marked with an X that is why a weave diagram is also called an X-diagram , or any other symbol. For example, in the figure the first warp yarn is over the first filling yarn, the second warp yarn is under the first filling yarn, and so on. The weave diagram should show at least the minimum number of warps and fillings needed to identify the woven structure completely.
Describing the repeat unit is usually enough to identify the whole fabric structure, since the rest of the fabric is formed by extending the repeat unit in the warp and filling directions as shown in Figure 3. Starting from the left side of the weaving machine the warp yarns are selected one by one, the first, the second, the third, etc.
Drawing-in-Draft DID diagram indicates which warp end is attached to which harness as shown in Figure 3. The vertical columns in the DID represent the warp yarns and the horizontal rows represent the harnesses which are numbered sequentially from bottom to top.
If a warp yarn is controlled by a 3. For example in Figure 3. The DID diagram should show the configuration for the whole repeat unit unit cell of the fabric. Straight draw is the simplest and therefore the most widely used drawing pattern. However, there also are drawing plans other than straight draw. Some of these plans are shown in Figure 3. If there are warp yarns in the unit cell that have the same interlacing pattern, then these warp yarns can be attached to the same harness, thus minimizing 22 FIGURE 3.
This is called least harnesses draw. Of course a straight draw can also be used; however, in that case, the number of harnesses required will be equal to the number of warp yarns in the unit cell as shown in Figure 3. The advantage of straight draw is the simplicity of drawing. The disadvantage is the cost of extra harnesses that may not be needed. Naturally, each warp end would correspond to one dent. However, it is not practical to draw only one yarn through a dent since the number of warp yarns is generally more than the number of dents in the reed.
Therefore, in practice more than one yarn is placed in a dent. The practical number of warp yarns per dent can be between 2 and 4. The upper limit is determined by the warp diameters and the width of the dent.
The warp yarns should be able to move up and down freely in the dent during shed change in order to have interlacing with the filling yarns.
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If a simple reed plan is to be used, it may not be necessary to draw a reed plan but simply state the number of warp yarns per dent. This is done using cam draft or chain draft CD for cam and dobby shedding.
In jacquard shedding, every warp end is controlled individually. CD diagram shows the order of lifting the harnesses and therefore the warp yarns since each warp end is attached to a harness. In CD diagram, the columns represent the harnesses and the rows represent the picks.
The picks are numbered from bottom to top as in the case of unit cell; therefore, the heights of the unit cell and the CD are equal. Conversely, a blank square means that the harness is lowered during the insertion of that particular weft. In the figure, harness 1 and harness 4 are lifted during the insertion of the first pick. In practice, Figures 3. Such an organization of weave diagram, DID, reed plan and CD gives most of the information for the design and manufacturing of the fabric.
The only information missing from this diagram is the selvages. The DID diagram and reed plan for selvages are constructed similar to the body of the fabric.
For single layer fabrics, drawing of these profiles is relatively easy. Warp and filling profiles are especially helpful to better visualize complex fabric structures such as multilayer fabrics. Assuming that they have similar yarns and the same number of warp and filling yarns per unit length, they have different properties, e. Although there are some weaves that are difficult to structurally connect to these three basic structures, most of the others are derived from these three basic 26 FIGURE 3.
The immediate derivatives of these three structures are warp rib, filling rib, and basket weave. These six designs are explained below. It should be noted that some consider the twill weave as the only basic weave from which all the other weaves are derived.
It has oneover one-under interlacing for both warp and filling yarns as shown in Figure 3. Plain weave requires only two harnesses. However, it can be woven on more than two harnesses especially if the warp density is more than 50 ends per inch epi.
Quite often, it is woven on four harnesses. As a result of this, the plain weave has low modulus compared to other designs that have less crimp in their structure. This results in a design that has ribs or texture ridges across the fabric in the warp direction which are caused by grouping of filling yarns.
The repeat units of all warp ribs have two warp yarns. The first warp follows the formula and the second warp does the opposite. Therefore, any warp rib design requires a minimum of two harnesses. The number of filling yarns in the repeat unit is the sum of the digits in the warp rib formula.
Warp rib formulae are classified as regular balanced or irregular unbalanced. The numerator and denominator of a regular or balanced warp rib formula is the same number, e.
In irregular or unbalanced formula, the digits are different numbers, e. If only a portion of the formula has the same number as numerator and denominator, the design is still considered to be an irregular rib.
This results in a design that has ribs or texture ridges across the fabric in the filling direction. These ribs are caused by 3.
Analogous to the warp ribs, the repeat units of all filling ribs have two filling yarns. The first filling follows the formula and the second filling does the opposite.
Therefore, any filling rib design requires a minimum of two harnesses. The number of warp yarns in the repeat unit is the sum of the digits in the filling rib formula.
The regular balanced or irregular unbalanced formulae apply to filling ribs as well. Basket weaves are produced by combining warp and filling ribs. In basket weaves, warp and filling yarns are grouped and they interlace together. The number of warp and filling yarns in the unit cell is equal to the sum of the digits in the formula. The basket weaves require a minimum of two harnesses. Basket weaves can be classified as common formula or uncommon formula Figure 3.
In a common formula basket weave, the first warp yarn and the first filling yarn follow the same formula. In an uncommon formula basket weave, the first warp and the first filling follow different formulae. The interlacing pattern of each warp yarn starts on a different filling yarn and follows the same formula. The twill line is not a physical line but an impression caused by the stepwise progression of the interlacing of the design.
Depending on the direction of the twill line, the twill weaves are called right-hand or lefthand twills. In right-hand twill, the twill line runs from lower-left to upper-right. In left-hand twill, the twill line runs from lower-right to upper-left. A fabric with a right-hand twill on the surface has a left-hand twill on the back. Twill weave formulae are classified as regular balanced or irregular unbalanced.
The digits of a regular or balanced twill formula are the same number, e.
Examples of irregular right- and left-hand twills are shown in Figure 3. The sum of the digits in the formula determines the unit cell of the design which also gives the minimum number of harnesses required to weave the design; at least three harnesses are required for a twill weave. There are an unlimited number of twill weave variations. The designs shown in Figures 3. In a common twill the starting point of each warp interlacing pattern is on the adjacent pick.
Twill angle also depends on the warp and filling density. Sometimes, especially in denim manufacturing, the fabric is sheared after weaving which also changes the twill angle. A variation of twill weave is called broken twill.
In this type of design, the start-up point of the pattern is random, which distorts the twill line. A yarn is considered to have a float knuckle if it stays over or under more than one other yarn. This dominance of one yarn results in a smooth texture. At least five harnesses are required for a satin weave, which is named after the minimum number of harnesses required to make it, e.
Satin weaves can be classified as warp faced or filling faced based on the dominance of the yarns on one side of the fabric.
If the long warp float is on the top surface of the fabric, the design is called warp faced. If the long filling float is on the top, it is called filling faced. A filling faced satin is also called a sateen.
A counter is used to determine the layout of the unit cell of the satin weave. Each warp yarn has the same interlacing pattern in the weave with a different starting point. In general, the number of interlacings is kept to a minimum such that the design does not resemble a twill weave. A number cannot be selected freely as a counter; there are rules in selecting counters. Usually a satin has a pair of numbers as useful counters. Table 3. The numbers in the pairs should not have a whole number relationship to each other and the sum of the pairs must be equal to the minimum number of harnesses required to make the weave.
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It is possible to develop weaves with various patterns such as honeycomb, stripes, check patterns, spot patterns, etc. Some of these special fabrics are discussed in Chapter There are several sources that may necessitate the development of a new fabric style. Compare the six basic weave designs plain, warp rib, filling rib, basket, twill and satin for the following properties.
Assume that the yarn counts and densities are the same. Complaints are also a good reason to develop new fabric designs or to modify existing ones. Sometimes, a new fabric idea may come from the associates in the manufacturing plant or competition from outside the plant. When developing fabric specifications, the end use requirements must be considered.
Other considerations are raw material, yarn structure, fabric structure and finishing. There are several ways and methods to develop fabrics.
Developing a completely new design is a good way to avoid any patent infringements, if there is any. What is a three dimensional 3D woven fabric? How do you determine the number of minimum harnesses required to produce a woven fabric design? These machines have the usual arrangements of change pinions to suit the required twist per inch in the thread, and it is of the highest importance that the delivery and taking up of the thread shall be uniform, otherwise the defective and irregular twist will seriously deteriorate the beauty and value of the manufactured fabrics.
This machine fulfils in the economy of the silk manufacture the function of the throstle or the mule in the cotton. Other varieties of machines have been adopted for the same end, but on account of the diminished speed of the spindles, increased loss in waste, and greater cost in wages, the plan most commonly adopted is to double and "to throw" on distinct and separate machines.
The doubling machine is similar in form to the cleaning machine. The bobbins from the spinning machine are placed upon a shelf near the floor, and the ends of silk from two or more bobbins, according to the sort of work done, are wound together in one cord or strand on a bobbin rotating horizontally, and moved by friction rollers, as in the winding and cleaning frames; but it is essential that this cord or strand shall in every part of its length be composed of the same numbers of the ends of silk laid evenly, and with the same amount of tension, together.
Before the silk arrives at the bobbin on which it is to be wound each fibre or end passes through the eye at the end of a light wire lever, which, whilst all is going on properly, is upheld by it, but should one of the fibres of silk break, then its wire lever drops upon a second lever, and, overbalancing it, causes its further end to rise up, and arrest, by means of a ratchet-wheel, the motion of the winding-on bobbin: thus, without the stoppage of the machine in general, that particular bobbin waits motionless for the attention of the operative, when the broken end of the fibre is re-pieced, and, the levers being restored to position, the silk proceeds as before.
After the silk has thus been doubled, or several threads lain evenly together, it is taken to the throwing machine to be again twisted, for the doubling machine does not, as in the cotton manufacture, double and twist at one time; and this twisting, as in cotton, is effected by the spindle revolving in a contrary direction to that of the spinning machine.
This process is almost a repetition of the spinning, except that, in place of winding on to bobbins, this is done upon reels of 43 to 44 inches circumference; indeed, many silk throwsters throw their silk upon the spinning machine by placing the spindle bands so as to rotate the spindles in the contrary direction, and then reel off the silk into hanks ready for the dyer.Centrifugal force causes the yarn to follow a curved path leading to ballooning upon rotation of the yarn Chapter 8, Jet Weaving.
Weaving started as a domestic art and stayed as a cottage industry until the invention of the fly shuttle. Keywords: Cone package, Random winding, Yarn, Yarn curvature. Conversely, a blank square means that the harness is lowered during the insertion of that particular weft.
There are several sources that may necessitate the development of a new fabric style. Presently, peachskin treatment is quite significant and is mostly carried out prior to dyeing. As a result of this, the plain weave has low modulus compared to other designs that have less crimp in their structure.
PDF Relationship between tensile strength of yarn and
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